Team Abstracts

    • Room for the river

      Due to climate change rivers have to carry more water in the direction of the North Sea. Heavier more inconsistent rains and the melting of glaciers in Central Europe are the main causes for this surplus in water in the Netherlands. Sea level rise makes it hard for our rivers to get rid of all this water. Action is necessary.

      The goal of the Dutch Room for the River Program is to give the river more room to be able to manage higher water levels. At more than 30 locations, measures will be taken that give the river space to flood safely. Moreover, the measures will be designed in such a way that they improve the quality of the immediate surroundings. The Room for the River program will be completed by approximately 2015.

      We want to take the students into the direct environment of the school and let them investigate which measures can be taken to create more room for the river and what the effects would be. Or if measures already have been taken, let them explain why they were taken and which effects these measures have.

      03-10-2015
    • Water supply networks in Metropolises

      Vienna's water supply system and what we can learn from it.

      Throughout the centuries, Vienna and its residents have been highly appreciative of the seemingly infinite water resources surrounding the city. Already discovered in Roman times, the vast amounts of easily accessible, high quality water have served as a basis for Vienna's success and wealth; however, none of this came out of thin air. In 1873, Europe's longest water line at the time was opened; only 15 years later it supplied 90% of Vienna's households with clear, fresh mountain spring water. On its 16 hour long journey, the water rises from one of numerous mountain springs, flows down the bubbling creeks and mountain streams to eventually be collected and transported to Vienna's southern border. Taking advantage of natural conditions, the transportation is powered by gravity; the households supplied with hydrostatics only - pumps are not required.

      Vienna's water supply has been continuously extended, is well known for its high quality standards, and serves as an example for other metropolises. The emphasis of our investigation is an in-depth analysis of Vienna's water supply system under different angles. We want to draw compelling conclusions from our research that will assist us once we examine water systems in densely populated areas in a more general manner. Moreover, we are committed to identify areas for improvement in Vienna's water supply network, particularly in the fields of sustainability and efficiency.

      Team A03-10-2015
    • Bottled water or tap water? Consumption patterns, beliefs and organoleptic evaluations of teenagers, their parents and teachers in Terrassa (Catalonia, Spain)

      Despite the huge controls that water for human consumption must overcome, water hardness or traces of potentially toxic components, either released from the container or as a by-product of the chlorination process, have been associated with a higher risk of some diseases. Due to the fact that there are different types of water for consumption (tap water, tap water filtered with osmosis, tap water filtered with active carbon and bottled water), we hypothesize that the diversity of available drinkable waters might be associated with a different range of exposure to the aforementioned pollutants. Therefore, our study will analyse the different types of water to demonstrate that their composition is not the same.

      Objective chemical composition appears not to be the main reason for choosing the origin of water we drink, but subjective criteria. The main objective of our study is to understand people's patterns, beliefs and organoleptic appreciations when choosing the water they drink. This study ultimately intends to raise more educated consumers willing to take objective decisions concerning their health.

      Young Scientists03-10-2015
    • Kimberley Highschool Research Plan

      Education is a very important part of our society. It affects the economy, health and social wellbeing of a country. In South Africa, underprivileged schools are deprived through social or economic condition of some of the fundamental rights of all members of a civilized society. These schools experience many problems namely, they are structurally unsafe forcing teaching to happen outside which in turn leads to high rates of absenteeism because of bad weather or illness.

      There is also severe overcrowding on teaching and learning in the classroom. This relates to the indignity of pupils and teachers who are left with no choice but to use open toilets or unhygienic pit latrines, as well as the vulnerability of unfenced schools to surrounding criminal elements.

      Another problem that under-privileged schools in South Africa are facing is that many families are unable to provide adequate food for children to function effectively at school. These schools often have vegetable gardens to assist the situation, but the demand is much greater than the supply.

      According to the Department of Basic Education's National Education Infrastructure Management System (NEIMS) Report, published in May 2011, of the 24793 public ordinary schools:

      3544 schools do not have electricity, while a further 804 schools have an unreliable electricity source;
      2402 schools have no water supply, while a further 2611 schools have an unreliable water supply;
      913 schools do not have any ablution facilities while 11450 schools are still using pit latrine toilets.

      South Africa is the 30th driest country in the world. We are currently facing the worst drought since 1992. Annual rainfall in South Africa is 495 millimetres, less than half of the global average of 1033 millimetres. The country also has high evaporation levels due to its warm, sunny climate. 1.58-billion cubic metres of supplied water is unaccounted for which means that 37% of our clean, drinkable water is lost.
      On average toilets use up 13.6 litres per flush making toilet flushing the single highest use of water in an average home, so it also presents a prime opportunity for water conversation. With the average person flushing five times a day, toilets makes up 31% of overall household water consumption.
      To minimise clean water usage we looked into using grey-water as a substitute to clean water in the toilet cistern. Grey-water is untreated household effluent from baths, showers, kitchen and hand wash basins and laundry i.e. all non-toilet use water.

      South Africa is also currently experiencing an energy crisis. About 2.5-million households in South Africa do not have electricity. There is an average of 3.5 children per household.
      We have come up with a solution to mitigate the problems we are faced with. We are planning to build a urine separating, grey-water toilet that converts faeces into compost to be used in agriculture; purifies urine into drinking water; and generates electricity. The urine separating purifier will help with the lack of water that so many schools are facing. Using grey-water instead of clean water will help the schools save water by continuously recycling water. The compost made from faeces will be used as a free source of fertilizer to help with vegetable gardens and help mitigate hunger. The electricity generator will provide electricity to these schools, making teaching and learning easier and more effective. All of these will help to improve their standard of living.

      14-10-2015
    • Wastewater treatment plants in Denmark

      This project concerns wastewater treatment in Denmark. The study focuses on Denmark as a pioneer in wastewater treatment, as a way to enlighten other countries about reducing water pollution in lakes and streams, resulting in a cleaner and more sustainable environment in the future.
      In Denmark we take it as a matter of course that we can drink water directly from the tap, but in reality it comes as a result of hard environmental work
      The study will be based on interviews of local water treatment technicians as well as small-scale experiments. It will incorporate some of the different techniques in Danish wastewater treatment, including mechanical, biological and chemical purification. The experiments in the study will to a marked extent focus on chemical purification.

      03-11-2015
    • Decrease of water usage and prevention of water contamination

      Japan is blessed with ample water supply, and everybody has access to water. However, because it is so abundant, people are more prone to wasting it. This is why we aim to reduce the amount of water wasted, and to minimize the amount we use. In addition, the amount of contaminants that can be removed from wastewater is limited, so we also aim to keep the water we discharge as clean as possible.

      To fulfil our aims, we will research and verify ways in which we can contribute to the decrease of water usage and to the prevention of water contamination which can be conducted at home. We would like to investigate and examine both traditional methods and new technology in order to do so.

      Although these may be small things, we believe that if each individual contributes to the problem, they will become big differences.

      We hope our study can be something worth considering to be a role model for every household, and that Japan can become a role model for other nations.

      04-11-2015
    • What’s up in your tap?

      The main task of our project is to gather and analyse research materials on the suitability of tap water, coming from our water supply, to be consumed. Moreover, we will also try to question the widely-held belief that tap water is less healthy than bottled water.

      The object of our interest will mainly be the bodies of water in Rybnik and its surrounding area, which we draw our water from. This water is subject to special chemical processes before finding its way to our taps.

      We will compare the results of our research with the research results obtained by some institutions dealing with water and its suitability to be drunk, for example, The Water and Sewage Company in Rybnik.

      We have become interested in this topic because of the prevailing stereotype of tap water being unhealthy or even harmful that still exists among many Polish people.

      If our hypothesis that cheaper , commonly available and not aggravating the environment tap water is just as good as bottled water is confirmed, we will conduct an information campaign among our students and local community.

      We will also try to encourage the local inhabitants to drink tap water and thereby reduce the consumption of plastic bottles, contributing to the improvement of our local and national environment.

      Kopernik04-11-2015
    • Abstract

      Japan has had an abundant amount of water and its advanced water system allows the citizens to have hot and cold water 24/7. However, it is said that the water system, which is a major lifeline in our daily life, will stop running after a catastrophic earthquake. Until roads can be cleared for help to arrive, it is up to these citizens to get safe water supplies for themselves. However, this is not such an easy case. It was proven in the 3/11 Eastern Japan Earthquake how difficult it can be just to get the needed amount of water for each family. Thus, we would like to promote a plan to build a non-electrical water purification instrument for temporary evacuation?shelters.

      We will apply the chemical engineering property of vacuum flashing to the resources available after a cataclysmic earthquakes in the shelter. Vacuum flashing is the heating of a liquid that, upon release to a lower pressure generated by a vacuum pump, undergoes considerable vaporization (flashing). Manual means of creating a vacuum environment will be a significant aspect of our plan and our primary objective is to productively accumulate condensed water and preserve the heat necessary for flash vaporization simultaneously.

      05-11-2015
    • Importance of Dutch Seashore Ecosystem for Migrating Birds

      Worldwide billions of birds leave their breeding grounds every autumn to migrate to areas with seasonally more favorable conditions. Many of these migrants travel only over a few hundred kilometers but others cover distances equivalent to the circumference of the earth.
      Just as impressive as the numbers of birds are their achievements. They have to cope with the enormous energetic cost of long-distance flying, particularly while crossing oceans and deserts that do not allow replenishment of depleted fat reserves. They have to appropriately time the onset and end of migrations, both on daily and annual basis. And finally, they have to orient their migratory movements in space to reach their species- or population-specific wintering and breeding grounds. Among these long-distance migrants are several species that invade the dutch seashore area as a stopover every autumn and spring. They look for food and move on a few days or weeks later.

      In this research project we will look for the food that these birds are looking for. What is the amount of living organisms in soil and what type of birds are looking for them. What does the number of living organisms in this seashore area tell us in what kind of condition this ecosystem is? Are these sources of food enough for the number of migration birds that will visit this place every year?

      05-11-2015
    • Paper-Based Sensor for Preliminary Screening of Lead in Industrial Wastewater

      Nowadays, several heavy metals have been continuously used in industries; especially lead (II) ion is the most harmful one in Thailand. Many people nearby an industrial area might face potential risks of serious human disorders due to lead contamination in consumed water. The objective of this research is to develop an inexpensive and portable testing device, called "Paper-based Sensor", for rapid determination of lead (II) level in wastewater. In the paper-based sensor, dithizone ligand was used as a colorimetric agent for lead (II) detection. In specific basic condition, complexation reaction between lead (II) ion and dithizone is able to form a distinct red colored complex on our proposed sensor which can be clearly observed by naked eye. After that, lead (II) concentration was quantified from color intensity of product images using a scanner coupled with image processing software. Moreover, various colorimetric conditions in the lead (II) quantitation were investigated including dithizone concentration, pH effect, reaction time, and interference study. Using optimal conditions, we found that our paper-based sensor can detect lead (II) concentration in the range of 10-100 ?g/mL with detection limit of 10 ?g/mL. Finally, we have successfully tested our proposed sensor for lead (II) determination in wastewater samples with acceptable correlation with the standard method using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES).

      05-11-2015
    • Sustainable rainwater

      In the Netherlands, we often complain when we get caught in a downpour, but what if we could take advantage of these showers and use the amount of water in a sustainable way? The shortage of clean and durable energy is the number one growing problem in the world. The demand of energy is continuously growing, while we are running out of fossil fuels. So how can we use rain to be a source of energy?

      The energy containing a single rain drop is high because of the potential energy in the altitude. We could use this potential energy to make electricity and therefore, light! How could we make this possible? Perhaps by putting a waterwheel in the drainpipe? We could use the potential height energy by transforming it to kinetic energy and, by using a dynamo of an ordinary bike, make electric energy out of our downpours. This will make an inconvenience into a useful energy source.

      Another way of efficiently using our drainage system is to clean the water which comes through it. In this way, the water does not have to be transported to a water treatment plant and it can be used directly at home. Relatively clean rain water will not get mixed with sewage and this means a more efficient way of treating wastewater and using the rainfall around the house.

      In our research we hope to find a more efficient way of using rainwater in and around house. We want to try to tackle the energy problem where it is created and want to find a more sustainable way as to how we use our rainwater.

      Odulphus 2: Sustainable Rainwater05-11-2015
    • Water in the city as a condition for increased biodiversity

      Water in the city is often considered a problem that needs to be solved, especially when the summer's cloudbursts creates big flooding. The urban areas experience big challenges regarding rain and the runoff, because the sewage system does not have the capacity for the large amount of water that the torrential rain periods cause.

      At the same time water is a very important condition for life, and for many animals and plants in the city, during dry periods.
      That is why water basins and village ponds, that can retain the rainwater, are important initiatives when you want to create better living conditions in the city, partly because it gives the city an opportunity to have a broad collection of animal and plant species we normally would not find in the city, and partly as recreational areas for people.

      The purpose of our project is to find a way to use the extra amount of rainwater, which periodically hits the urban areas as a result of global climate change, in a positive way. We would like to see how the collection of rainwater can contribute to increasing the biodiversity in the central part of the city. We will do this by creating and studying a village pond at Langkaer STX/HF/IB World School. Here we will look at how we can create new habitats for animals and plants, thus increasing the biological diversity.

      05-11-2015
    • The Recession of the Bow Glacier: Its Effects on Drinking Water

      Our research will revolve around two neighbouring glaciers which hang off the Wapta Icefield; the Peyto Glacier, and the Bow Glacier.

      The Peyto glacier is found in the Canadian Rockies in Banff National Park, Alberta, and is subject to extreme melts season to season. (Wallace, Alistair Lennox, 1995) It has lost 70% of its mass since it was first researched in 1896. (Wallace, Alistair Lennox, 1995) The Bow Glacier is also found in Banff National Park, to the northwest of Lake Louise, and has been receding steadily since 1850

      (Vaux,Henry, "Retreating Glaciers Captivate Vaux family for more than 100 years", 2015) Between 1951 and 1993, it receded a distance of 4.26 kilometres squared to 3. 57 kilometres squared. (Hopkinson, Chris, 1951-1993.)

      The main purpose of this research project is to determine the impact that the recession of the Bow Glacier has on Calgary's drinking water supply. By comparing and contrasting it to that of the Peyto Glacier, we hope to emphasise the potential impact of climate change on glaciers regardless of their geographical location. Our main goal is to show that climate change has an actual, local effect, and is a very current concern that is affecting Calgarians presently. We would also like to prove to people that this issue could potentially turn problematic in a short period of time. This has the potential to affect the quality and quantity of water that Calgarians have access to, ultimately affecting the quality of our lives. With this research, we are hoping to prove that climate change is a local issue, which has an impact on every citizen who has access to these glaciers. We are hoping to find a pattern in the decreasing glaciers that will reveal some insight about the future of the glaciers in the
      Rocky Mountains; specifically our water supply. We want to alert Calgarians and others alike that if no changes are made, there may have to be drastic changes in our future use of clean water in order to make up for the predicted loss of these glaciers (Lovett, Rick, 2011).

      Aberhart 210-03-2016
    • Purification of Water using Fruit Peels

      Our project aims to help the often unnoticed needy families in Singaporean society, who do not have the means to maintain the plumbing system in housing estates and are hence subjected to
      drinking unclean impure water.
      In this experiment, fruit peels were used to purify unclean water laden with heavy metal ions. Ester bonds in fruit peels were broken down through the process of hydrolysis to filter out heavy metal ions in water. Fruit peels were boiled in sodium hydroxide, and then rinsed with water until it had a neutral pH of 7. It was then dried in an oven, and tested if it could filter heavy metal ions in water away. By adding the fruit peels to several samples that contain heavy metal ions,
      the sample that has the least amount of precipitate when tested using the precipitation method will suggest that the particular fruit peel is the most effective in filtering out the heavy metal ions. This experiment requires only the waste product of the fruit and is therefore a cheap and inexpensive way to treat impure water that contains heavy metal ions.

      Team Purify10-03-2016
    • The Biotube

      Singapore, a small city state, has limited water resources with water scarcity as a pressing issue for decades. Since the 1960s, Singapore has been heavily reliant on imported water.
      Furthermore, negative consequences of urbanisation such as polluted rivers and widespread flooding have exacerbated this problem.
      There are efforts to control our over-reliance on non-domestic sources which tap on the research and development sector (R&D) to develop technologies, like NEWater. However, these strategies consume costs and land.

      Our project aims to obtain clean water from waste water in canals and make full use of the scarce water we have, through an inexpensive and low-energy method that is accessible to households. The concept we are adopting is similar to that of NEWater which is a local approach to treat water in Singapore. We studied the effectiveness of herbs and fruit peels in purifying water to deduce the best combination to be used in our design prototype biofiltration system, the Biotube. Furthermore, plants can be grown in the Biotube, resulting in more efficient use of space while simultaneously providing sustenance for the household. The materials used can be widely found locally. The Biotube uses unwanted wastewater, to “create” water and space for all.

      Titans10-03-2016
    • Violently Rainwater

      In the Netherlands we have a lot to do with water. For many centuries we have been threatened by flooding danger. In the last few years we have developed several technologies to protect our country against floods. That's why we have dikes and the so-called Deltawerken. With that system we created a whole new province. Also we have a lot of effluent treatment plants that give us the ability to have a lot of clean drinking water. The purpose of the Dutch water management is to make sure that we maintain dry feet, whilst having sufficient and clean drinking water.
      Unfortunately, The Netherlands have less experience in the field of water management, especially when it comes to rainwater. Often, the water runs straight into the sewer, where it is mixed with wastewater, prior to entering into the effluent treatment plant. Of course, this is a waste of water and energy. In addition there tends to be more violently rainwater, as a result of global warming, while at the same time sea level rises, of polar ice melting.
      Much area in the country is paved, which ensures fast transport of water into the sewer. As a result of this, the sewer system reaches the limits of the amount of water it can handle, which in turn may cause flooding of local areas.
      Also the city of ‘s Hertogenbosch is confronted with rainwater issues, caused by urbanization. After a sever shower, a lot of water remains on the streets. In addition there is little space for plants, due to a high part of paved areas.
      The municipal authorities of the city are in need of advice on how to restructure the city in order to make better use of rain water, having nature in mind. Firstly, we will investigate possibilities for capturing rainwater. We’ll also search for unnecessary pavement. After this we will review which methods may be applied in ‘s Hertogenbosch.
      We will conclude with reporting our findings back to the authorities consisting out of a map from the new décor.

      Benthe en Judith10-03-2016
    • Investigation of Biotopes

      Singapore faces several geographical limitations, one of which is the small land area. With the rapid urbanisation in this small city, Singapore faces the issue of transport pollution and that of limited natural freshwater resources. Additionally, Singapore receives abundant precipitation especially during the monsoon seasons, namely during the wet phase of the Northeast monsoon (between the months of
      December and January) and during the Southwest monsoon season (between the
      months of June and September). In order to fully utilize the storm-water collected, cleansing biotopes are introduced for the natural treatment of water. The cleansing biotope is a natural water treatment concept that utilises carefully selected plants for
      absorption of excess nutrients in water and differentiated soil layers as a filter medium. They offer effective water treatment while maintaining a natural and beautiful environment.
      Our research project aims to examine the characteristics and properties of a
      cleansing biotope, and to understand its working principle in maintaining water quality at our local parks – such as the Jurong Eco-Garden, where a cleansing biotope is already in place and is being studied for its water quality maintenance and conservation properties. Our project will focus on finding the key factors behind effective cleansing biotope design that can improve the quality of surface runoff before they are emptied into the lakes and reservoirs. Our long term vision is that effective application of cleansing biotopes can contribute to the overall quality of water collected and lead to a reduction in energy and manpower resources used for conventional water treatment procedures.

      River Valley High Team 110-03-2016
    • Blue Energy

      Blue Energy is a new way to generate power from the mixing of fresh and salt water. More specific, any solution with different anion and cation concentrations can be used, but in order to the lack of resources, the mixing of fresh and salt water is the most profitable solution until now. Moreover, the natural abundance of fresh water near salt water can be used as a benefit in this new way of generating power.
      Nowadays some different methods are applied in order to generate Blue Energy. Within this abstract only one way will be described: Reversed Electrodialysis (RED). In this specific way of generating power, two different kinds of membranes are used in order to create a transport of positive and negative charges.
      A cationic membrane is used alternately with an anionic membrane. This causes the positive ions to move in one direction and the negative ions in the opposite direction. Therefore there will be a charge at outside of the cell containing the membranes. When these charges get in contact with an
      electrolyte, a redox reaction will be the result. When the two sides of the cell are connected with a metal wire, an electric current will be the result because of the electron transport through the wire.
      Earlier the influence of the ion types and the number of membranes has been investigated. Within the scope of the 2016 research, the influence of the membrane surface will be determined.

      10-03-2016
    • Tokyo’s state-of-the-art water management system

      Japan has an extreme fluctuation in precipitation levels depending on the
      season - the wet season called “tsuyu” between spring and summer, the typhoons in the autumn, and the dry cold winter. In order to solve this problem in the metropolitan Tokyo area, the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and
      Tourism has come up with an incredible water management system called “G-Cans”. This intricate system is located in the outskirts of Tokyo, and it serves two purposes. One is to save Tokyo from flooding. Although Tokyo is located in
      the plains, this underground storm sewer complex is incredibly huge and it helps
      to drain away. The other purpose is to make sure there is a sufficient amount of water supply all the year around. With13 million residents, Tokyo is one of the most densely populated areas in the world. Yet almost 100% of its population has stable access to safe water, because this massive storm sewer system supports the impoundment of water. We would like to elaborate on this entire underground water system in our report.

      Shibuya â‘¡10-03-2016
    • Nitrate-phytoremediation by Eichhornia crassipes (water hyacinths)

      Sewage from agriculture enters groundwater and increases nitrate concentration in drinking water. This is an enormous environmental problem not only for the ecosytem but also for humans. Particularly in rural areas drinking water is increasingly polluted with nitrates. Since scientific studies already point out that tropical floating plant Eicchornia crassipes have the
      ability to decrease nitrate contamination, the question was raised whether it might have a positive
      effect on freshwater in moderate climates, too. These experiments are performed in cooperation with the University of Technology RWTH Aachen. We determine how much the tropical floating
      plant Eicchornia crassipes can reduce the nitrate concentration in tab-water. The nitrate uptake capacity depends on the water temperature.

      Gymnasium Alsdorf 115-04-2016
    • Acid rain and vegetation

      Intent

      Acid rain is a continuous issue affecting ecosystems around the world. Acid rain is the result of water reacting with sulphur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NO, NO2) to form acids
      in the air before precipitation occurs. While many sources of these reactants are natural, such as in volcanoes, many of them are released into the atmosphere when fossil fuels are burnt. According to the Environmental Protection Agency, “roughly 2/3 of all SO2 and 1/4 of all NOx [in the United States] come from electric power generation that relies on burning fossil fuels, like coal.” (EPA, April 12, 2012)

      Beet plants will be grown in a ontrolled environment for their quick growth rate. They will be watered with different concentrations of simulated acidic precipitation (very dilute solution of sulfuric acid for best results, if not feasible, acetic acid). The intent is to investigate the degree to which acidity affects plant growth, and to determine which acidity promotes the most plant growth. It is hypothesized that pure water will not promote the most plant growth, rather a very slight concentration of acid rain will. This is because of the likeliness that plants
      have adapted to slightly acidic rain due to carbon dioxide in the atmosphere over millions of years. The research from this project could be useful to spread awareness about acid rain and support air quality conservation, and for agriculture to see if acidity can possibly affect growth for the better.

      Aberhart 3 15-04-2016
    • ZARAUZ, A BIRTH OF LIFE

      Colombia can count, among its many riches, with two oceans and several lakes and rivers that feed our vast country. Claustro Moderno is no stranger to this blessing. Having a water birth of its own, the school has been able to provide water not only to the people, plants and animals that coexist there, but also to deprived communities nearby. Nevertheless, unfavourable situations such as inequality, social problematics,
      and lack of strategy in the administration of environmental programs throughout the years have made our country’s water conditions really vulnerable. Water management, control and treatment for consumption in our country is in alert.
      It is imperative to propose strategies that promote solidarity and social development in order to implement viable solutions to overcome such situation. As students we want to start by our school, our Claustro Moderno community. We will work on the construction of an environmental education project based on monitoring and technical training for
      students, staff and parents in the school water use and treatment as well as in the production of natural and artificial filters. In addition, we will lead campaigns to encourage the community to take advantage of the many benefits brought by the water born in our school, and also to raise awareness on the terrible consequences of water
      misuse and waste.

      Zarauz15-04-2016
    • A comparison of the benefits of the JMSS wetland and the Jock Marshall Reserve to local community

      In 2014, JMSS embarked on creating our own urban wetland to study the changes
      associated with bringing water to an urban environment. The project, which consisted of harvesting water from the staff carpark, explored the possible benefits associated with having a small water storage area; benefits such as an increase in biodiversity in an area which has been developed and built up over successive years.
      For the past two years rainfall has accumulated in the small depression, which is our wetland and along with the constant change in the microclimate (the wetting and drying regime) has come a succession of vegetation and a variety of local wildlife, both transient and permanent, including birds and possums. The accumulation of leaf litter at the bottom of the depression is also evidence that it has worked well as a filtering device and has continued to develop as a healthy ecosystem.
      To broaden the scope of our study of wetlands and their benefits, the extension of our project is to look at and compare the processes, which occur in the larger wetland (Jock Marshal Reserve) at Monash University and the benefits it provides for the local
      environment. Using a range of sensing equipment, big data and anecdotal observations we will be looking at the change over time that has occurred in both wetlands in terms of their water chemistry, influence on biodiversity and future impacts of these systems on urban environments. We would not only compare the results of its health through the assessment of physical indicators such as turbidity and temperature and its
      biological indicators; but also examine the benefits it provides to the local environment. Through the collection of data over an extended period of time (two years) a conclusion could be reached. The data we are using is significant due to the manner in which it is readily accessible; an online interface built into the Jock Marshall Reserve website, which clearly highlights the important work citizen science can achieve in protecting and
      improving our use of water. Our study also further highlights how through connections with different stakeholders in the community a greater awareness of sustainable use of water is achievable.

      John Monash Science School15-04-2016
    • Impact of Vermicomposting products in soil fertility of degraded Brazilian Cerrado and the perspective to minimize water pollutants release

      The compositions of household wastes are variable, but they generally have high concentrations of organic matter. Landfills are commonly used for disposing of these wastes, but the degradation of the organic fraction produces leachates that, in combination with rainwater percolation, significantly threaten surface and ground waters. Composting – breaking down of organic material by organisms that feed on wastes, converts it to a soil-like mass (compost) and liquid (leachate) – is an alternative to reduce inappropriate waste into the environment. These composting outputs can be used as a soil conditioner.
      The Brazilian Cerrado is a biome characterized by acid soils with low essential nutriënt availability, high aluminum saturation, and low water-holding capacity. The study site was an area of degraded Cerrado used for over 30 years for pasture. The study evaluated the use of vermicomposting byproducts performed by red wiggler worms (Eisenia fetida) on plant development (Agapanthus africanus and aromatic herbs). Basic characterizations of the waste material were done and the viability of the systems was evaluated in terms of compost and leachate yields in relation to organic matter mass inputs, therefore providing an indirect estimative of the amount of pollutants that would otherwise be released into the environment in a non-sustainable manner.

      Sustainable agriculture15-04-2016
    • The River Po: a natural precious resource of water for the City of Turin.

      Turin, the city where we live, lies on the river Po that not only constitutes a
      characteristic element of the city
      landscape, but is also a real primary source for what is one of the most precious natural resources, water.
      From the Po, in fact, a meaningful (17%)
      percentage of the water that is purified and converted into drinkable water originates, distributed to the city population by the SMAT (Società Metropolitana dell’Acqua di Torino - Metropolitan Company of Waters
      Turin) through the net of the town
      aqueduct. Furthermore, the Po furnishes a relevant quantity of water for industrial and agricultural uses in the upstream and downstream areas of the city; to the Po, after appropriate treatment, the wastewaters (grey and black) return, used by the same city and by different industries.
      Finally, in the city stretch, the water of the Po is used for sporting activities and relaxation (canoeing, fishing, tourist navigation on the boats Valentino and Valentina).
      These are the reasons why one research
      team (Water in&for Turin) will be looking into the necessary treatments to obtain drinkable water, into the engineering and technology of SMAT’s (Società Metropolitana Acque Torino/ Metropolitan Company of Waters in Turin) plant and its research laboratories.

      15-04-2016
    • Filtering Grey water for reuse

      Grey water is reusable wastewater from bathroom sinks, showers and kitchens. Arundel School has set up a system in which grey water is recycled by passing it through a series of filters. The recycled water can then be used to irrigate the grounds and to slowly restore underground water supplies.

      Arundel School intends on developing a storage area into a dam with the hope of encouraging biodiversity. This will be achieved by filtering at least 20 cubic metres of water a day from the kitchens, laundry and hostels.

      Our project aims to test the effectiveness of the filtering process. This will be done by testing environmental indicators which include the physical, chemical and biological, every fortnight for at least 6 months. The physical indicators will include water temperature, transparency, odour of the water and the colour. The chemical indicators to be tested are the pH and detergents. Coliform bacteria and fats will fall under the biological indicators.

      Arundel03-10-2015
    • The water eutrophication: not just a problem in Catalonia but a global one. Studying this process and searching solutions.

      Water eutrophication is not only a local problem: lakes, rivers and oceans of all around the world are suffering, as a consequence of human activity, a constant supply of phosphor and nitrogen from fertilizers and detergents. We want to stress this remarkable problem in our planet, not only to ecosystems but to humans as well. Reducing eutrophication should be a key priority when considering future water policy.

      Preventive and corrective measures shall be studied and considered. In this context, our project is aimed at study the eutrophication process: its causes, consequences and possible solutions. We hypothesize that the growth of bog plants captures phosphor and nitrogen from water. Therefore, our investigation will be focused in crafting and monitoring four different eutrophic ponds and studying the purification effect of bog plants (four different species) growing on them.

      Lake Power03-10-2015
    • Water & Energy Consumption of Winter Tourism and its Consequences

      If you think of Austria, what is the first thing to cross your mind? Mozart, Salzburg or Conchita Wurst? Most people would probably say skiing - which isn't far-fetched, considering that every year an equivalent to a third of Austria's population visits the famous ski resorts. Therefore the winter tourism's revenue amounts to an astounding 14.3 billion dollars. However, the future of this important source of wealth is uncertain, since, due to climate change, the amount of snow that covers the mountain ranges is declining rapidly.
      In the next thirty to fifty years, the snow line is said to increase by up to 300m, causing the snow reliability of 90% of Austrian ski resorts to be endangered. In order to still enable skiing throughout the entire season, snow cannons are used more frequently every year, and to this day, these efforts have been mostly successful.

      Already, the water consumption of Europe's snow cannons is about 95 million cubic metres per year, while they munch away on electricity like a 150000 - inhabitant - city. At the moment, the alpine ecosystem is able to sustain the strain, but as glaciers are shrinking and climate warming switches into overdrive, there are no doubts about the immanent consequences of the unavoidable water shortages. First symptoms are already noticeable in the French Alps, where the flow rate of mountain creeks have decreased by a whopping 70%. These are only some of the problems that we, as the future generation, will have to find answers to.

      Team B03-10-2015
    • Revitalization of an Urban Riparian Ecosystem

      Bowker creek is an eight kilometre long urban creek. It was once a salmon bearing creek that fed the local communities. Now, however, centuries of development have taken their toll: the creek has a mere two and half kilometres above ground, the rest running underground through pipes and culverts. The creek's biodiversity has also greatly been reduced as a result. The Capital Regional District (CRD) of Victoria recently announced a hundred year restoration plan for Bowker creek. Our project at Oak Bay High School for the upcoming conference is twofold: our first initiative is to take samples of the riparian vegetation and invertebrates living in the section of Bowker creek next to our school. We are also taking water samples from the creek at its headwater and near our school to determine water quality. We plan to use these results to determine the current overall health of the creek ecosystem. The second part of our project is to repeat these tests after the CRD have completed their riparian habitat restoration to determine the restoration's efficacy.

      Oak Bay High School14-10-2015
    • The impact of human activity on the rivers water quality of our town, Vervins (Picardie, France).

      First of all, it is relevant to say that human activity can have a quite important impact on the rivers water quality, even more particularly as far as the low-yielding rivers water is concerned. In order to estimate this effect, we will not only focus on the biodiversity of macro-invertebrates but also on the diversity of some micro-organisms called diatoms. These observations will be presented along with various physicochemical measurements (i.e. temperature, PH readings, dissolved dioxygen, current speed, turbidity, conductivity and so on...).
      These scientific facts as well as the water sampling will be carried out on both upstream and downstream rivers in our town. A third river which is known for the exceptional quality of its water will also be studied as a basis for comparison.
      We can assume that the biodiversity in the downstream part of the town will be lower.
      Where appropriate and on the basis of these studies, the identification of the species which disappear - or, on the contrary, whose population abnormally grows - together with physicochemical measurements should enable us to determine the potential source of pollution.
      This process ultimately aims at making our citizens aware of the impact of their activities and helping them understand the importance of preserving a significant biodiversity.

      Saint Joseph 103-11-2015
    • Clean water

      Drinking clean water from the tap at home comes as a natural thing, no matter where you live in Denmark. However, this is not the cause everywhere in the world. We want to investigate the quality of drinking water in Denmark, and discuss reasons to why it is this clean. It relates partly to our clean groundwater, and how we protect and take advantage of this privilege.
      Can we keep it this way and how is that possible? Maybe there are ways to make it even better.
      To research Danish groundwater, we are going to investigate which kind of tests that are done at the water treatment works. In case of polluted water, we want to find out which minimal criteria water must grant to be acceptable as drinking water.
      In Denmark there are regulations on reducing risks of groundwater pollution. We want to find out what they are, and analyse their importance in maintaining clean water. We realise that there are political aspects to this issue, and we want to investigate these by interviewing experts in our local community.

      Team Vordingborg Gymnasium03-11-2015
    • The implications of urbanisation on the state and health of a river system and its downstream environment in a semi-arid region of South Africa

      We hypothesise that the health and habitat integrity of a river will change as a result of different landuse along its length.
      The Moreletta River, arises within the city in which we live, Pretoria. It flows through urban and farm land, has a large dam on it, and becomes one of the most important floodplain systems in the northern part of South Africa. We will investigate how landuse affects the health and habitat integrity of the river system along its length. We will map the river and divide it into sections based on dominant landuse, habitat and channel type. At representative sample sites we will investigate:

      River health: using a simplified scoring system for invertebrates - MiniSASS; and by recordings of certain abiotic factors such as total dissolved solids;

      Habitat Integrity: using a simplified index that considers changes to instream and riparian habitats and the presence of exotic water plants; and recordings of localised landuse impacts such as sedimentation and erosion.

      The data will be analysed and presented as a simplified River-Reach-Analysis showing the health and habitat integrity status along the length of the river in relation to the surrounding landuse. The results could be used to help raise awareness as to how to better manage our local rivers which are our lifelines in our semi-arid country, South Africa.

      Phoebe and Lara04-11-2015
    • Abstract

      In the Great Lakes region of the United States there is an abundance of freshwater, but due to the constant threat of pollution, the safety and quality of the water requires constant monitoring. Algal blooms of cyanobacteria and microcystis species are one of the most prominent threats to the water supply. In 2014, the water supply to the city of Toledo, Ohio was disrupted because of high level of toxins (cyanotoxins, microcystin) from a Harmful Algal Bloom (HAB) in Lake Erie.

      To combat this, a new copper-based product, Earthtec from Earth Science Laboratories in Arkansas, will be tested on algae colonies. One possible drawback of the product is cell lysis. Cell lysis of the algae could introduce toxins into the water that will render the water unfit for human consumption.

      The objective of this experiment is to test Earthtec to determine the minimum concentration at which the algae growth is inhibited and at what concentration the product causes cell lysis. Not only do we hope to find Earthtec to be effective, but also safe.

      05-11-2015
    • Abstract

      Despite its humid climate and its rainy season, Japan frequently experiences droughts, at least once in ten years. The most recent example of a widespread drought was in 1994 when the nationwide water shortage affected 16 million people, leading to reduced water supply and agricultural losses. This instability in water resources, instead of deterring the development of infrastructure, has actually enabled Japan to become one of the world's pioneers for innovating technology for the equitable, sustainable, and efficient use of water resources. Another factor that Japan must contemplate on is the increasing trend of fluctuation in precipitation, which is most likely due to extreme weathers and environmental issues. Also, the changes in environment and lifestyles in recent decades have rapidly changed the way water is used in Japan.

      There is an increasing need for us to shift our perspective towards our limited water resources in order to maintain a sustainable environment. Therefore, through research of Japanese history and culture surrounding water, ultimately, we aim to uncover some of the deciding factors, which allowed Japan to become a country of high water sanitation levels, and how Japan should shift its national strategy on water for a more sustainable future.

      Shibumaku05-11-2015
    • Dye effluent treatment with Ag doped ZnO photocatalytic technique

      Zinc oxide (ZnO) has attracted wide interest because of its good photocatalytic activity, high stability, antibacterial property, and non-toxicity. Chitosan is a natural biopolymer. It's found in shrimps, craps, insects and some kinds of fungi. Chitosan is a biomaterial which can be disintegrated by the nature. It's safe to use chitosan with human because of its non-toxin and non-alleged ability. The objective of this research is to study the photocatalytic activity of Ag doped ZnO for degradation of methylene blue dye in aqueous solution under visible light irradiation. The project has studied the effect of Ag dopant concentrations (5, 10, 25, 50 mmol) on the preparation of Ag doped ZnO synthesized via a sample precipitation method using zinc oxide and silver nitrate as precursors and sodium hydroxide as a precipitating agent. The prepared samples were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The degradation of methylene blue (1.0x10-5 M) dye in aqueous solution was evaluated under visible light irradiation. The results indicated that the powdered of 50 mmol Ag dopant and pH=10 were highest photocatalytic efficiency. The tested Zno dopped by Ag with the best result will be coated on chitosan sheet and chitosan beads in order to give it a reuse able ability.

      MWITS_Team 105-11-2015
    • How can we check and safeguard the quality of waters of river Po?

      Turin, the city where we live, lies on the river Po, that not only constitutes a characteristic element of the city landscape, but is also a real primary source for what is one of the most precious natural resources, water.

      From the Po, in fact, a meaningful (17%) percentage of the water that is purified and converted into drinkable water originates, distributed to the city population by the SMAT (Societa Metropolitana dell'Acqua di Torino - Metropolitan Company of Waters Turin) through the net of the town aqueduct. Furthermore, the Po furnishes a relevant quantity of water for industrial and agricultural uses in the upstream and downstream areas of the city; to the Po, after appropriate treatment, the wastewaters (grey and black) return, used by the same city and by different industries.

      Finally, the water of the Po is used, in the city stretch, for sporting activities and relaxation (canoeing, fishing, tourist navigation on the boats Valentino and Valentina). From these premises it seemed interesting to us to go and investigate, with our first research team, in which ways the relevant authorities take charge of the control and monitoring of the water quality. We will be going with biologists of ARPA (Agenzia Regionale per la Protezione Ambientale/Regional Agency of Environmental Protection) to collect Po water samples, in three different stations and in different seasons, in and near Turin to recognise and study macrobenthos and macrophytes, indicator species of the water quality.

      The other group research will be looking into the drinkable water quality, the necessary treatments, the engineering and technology of SMAT's (Societa Metropolitana Acque Torino/ Metropolitan Company of Waters in Turin) plant and its research laboratories.

      The first group will focus on the theme of Biodiversity (Bio-remediation, ecosystems, biodiversity), while the second one will develop the theme of Engineering and Technology (Water quality, treatment, monitoring, water waste management).

      Water keepers05-11-2015
    • Nuclear fusion energy

      The congress we want to attend is called 'Water is Life'; yet most of the themes discussed here deal with how water can be problematic instead of how water can actually embody life. With this in mind we set out to find a way where water can contribute to our future. One of the most demanding issues we are facing in modern society is the shortage of energy sources. We think that water can be a solution to this problem by using heavy water (deuteriumoxide) and super heavy water (tritiumoxide).

      This way of generating clean energy was already discovered a few years ago; the nuclear fusion of deuterium and tritium. These are two different hydrogen atoms that, when fused, release a lot of energy. The source is enormous, because water is everywhere around us. The only problem is getting the energy out of the atoms and into the power outlets in your house.

      DIFFER is an institute in Eindhoven, the Netherlands which is mainly focused on finding new, cleaner sources of energy to save our environment. This includes the production of the nuclear fusion energy with deuterium. DIFFER is also part of an international project that is focused on setting up a nuclear fusion reactor in southern France. This reactor goes by the name of ITER, the build of this enormous reactor is an international project of which DIFFER is one of the major participants.

      The main purpose of our research project is to find out if the nuclear fusion of deuterium can be the cleanest and most profitable energy source yet as well as a permanent replacement for our current energy resources. We would like to find out whether or not this type of energy could be produced in the Netherlands and if it has an economic rentability. Water is energy and energy is life.

      Odulphus 1: Nuclear Fusion05-11-2015
    • Abstract

      Once every hundred years an extremely big storm rages through Holland. This storm causes almost all of the rivers to flood. One of those rivers is 'de Maas' and its cannels. When it is storming like this, the water will rise to the point where an important industrial area (Groenewoud), next to the d'Oultremontcollege, will be flooded.
      To stop this from happening the city council needs to store the water somewhere. The goal is to make a beautiful design for a park where the city can store not only the excessive water from the big storm but from other storms as well.

      This park is a place where people can learn about the value of water in a playful way. It will be suitable for all ages. This park is a place where biodiversity will gradually increase and a place where people and animals can have fun with water.

      05-11-2015
    • The Effect of an Educational Framework in Changing Water Conservation Actions amongst Students in an Urban High School

      The basis of our research is to find an educational framework that is most effective in changing water conservation actions. Our goal is to alter perspectives on water conservation amongst the student population and promote positive change in their daily lives. Students, and, by extension, Canadians often don’t realize how they negatively affect environmental issues and they, therefore, do not make changes to their own water conserving behaviours. The average Canadian person consumes 350 litres of water per day
      Previous work has failed to address what techniques have been successful in changing human behaviour and applying it to water conservation education. The problem we have created is so vast and
      overwhelming, that the thought of making small changes to everyday behavior doesn’t seem like enough to most, so the people let it slip into the back of their minds. First, we will follow and evaluate ourselves, to see what we as more conscious/aware people do in our everyday lives. We plan to compose a survey to evaluate student’s current water usage habits in order to determine possible solutions. In our second stage
      of research we will mplement an education program and take a post-program survey. We hope that our
      program will instill a water conscious mindset and create a measurable impact amongst our student population.

      Aberhart 1 10-03-2016
    • Water Quality on the Tsuu T’ina Reserve in Comparison to City of Calgary Water Quality

      The water quality of one of Canada’s aboriginal groups, the Tsuu T’ina Nation, as suggested by research, has often been disregarded and dismissed by the Canadian Government. In southern Calgary, Alberta, where the Tsuu T’ina Nation is located, both water quality and water allocation are important issues that this community is currently facing. Previous research has failed to confront problems regarding the quality of water and the government’s method of allocating water, because Canada’s First Nations are a minority in society even today. Our aim with this research is to determine the causes of dispute between the Tsuu T’ina Nation and the Canadian Government and to determine how to better manage the water rights of the Tsuu T’ina Nation and all Canadian First Nations. By speaking to government representatives and Tsuu T’ina members, and by gathering facts from these groups, we hope to develop a greater understanding of the water allocation and what is being done. Ultimately, we would like to collect a water sample from the Tsuu T’ina reserve to compare it with and contrast it to water standards in Alberta. In order to compare Albertan water quality standards to the Tsuu T’ina Nation’s standards, we will look at temperature levels, dissolved oxygen levels, pH levels, nutrients present, toxins, turbidity, bacteria, visual surveys, biological sampling as well as good
      organism indicators. Overall, our research addresses the importance of
      acknowledging the problems relating to the Tsuu T’ina Nation’s water allocation and quality, and how the water itself can be brought up to standards that are available to
      Calgary residents. The First Nations were resident in Canada long before anybody else, and they should be provided with equal rights to water and water management.

      Aberhart 410-03-2016
    • The gauging of pumps

      The Netherlands is partially below sea level and is therefore very sensitive to flooding. If there’s a period with much rain, the water level in the ditches will rise. If this water isn’t
      pumped into the river, the land around the ditches can be flooded. The Dutch department of water affairs is in control of pumping water from the ditches into the rivers, by doing this
      they prevent the land from being flooded. Commissioned by the Dutch department of water affairs we’re going to measure whether the pumps actually pump the same amount of water into the river, as they should according to the suppliers. We’re going to gauge these pumps witch means we’re going to compare our measurements to the amount of water that should be pumped into the river according to the suppliers of the pumps. The month when most rain falls (January), when the water level is at its highest, we’re going to measure the water that’s being pumped into the river. In this month we’ll be able to pump different amounts of water into the river without the ditches running out of water. We’re going to measure this with equipment supplied by the Dutch department of water affairs from one of their boats.

      Vera en Janneke10-03-2016
    • REUSING RAINWATER

      Jesuïtes Bellvitge- Joan XXIII is working on a multidiscipline technical project whose objectives are:

      - The collection of rainwater that falls on the school roof

      - Storage of the above in a tank at ground level

      - To raise the water using a pump powered by photovoltaic solar energy

      - To use this water flow in the school sanitation system

      We have defined four areas of work:

      - Civil Engineering: the assessment of how the water can be collected; the needs of the consumer; the running system and the storage and elevation.

      - Economic-Ecological study of the filtering and maintenance of a deposit of rainwater without any chemical treatment. This will involve the design and maintenance of a macroscopic filter system using a nano-membrane. We will also evaluate whether we can save on chemicals by not using the public network.

      - Electro-Mechanical Engineering: A project involving a system of photovoltaic solar panels located on the roof of the building which should provide the energy for the water pump. This includes developing the lightweight structure anchor plates and measuring the area needed for the machinery and pumps (water elevation and water cycles).

      - Economics: A study of the costs of the project and the possibilities of obtaining grants and subsidies. A study of the savings made by the decrease in consumption of drinking water in order to recuperate the installation costs.

      Bellvitge10-03-2016
    • Optimising Usage of Water within a School premise

      Singapore receives approximately 2340mm of rainfall per annum, well above the
      global average of 990mm. Yet, Singapore as a country, is challenged with water
      issues. As a city-state on a small island of just about 718 km² with 5.5 million inhabitants, Singapore has the dual problem of limited space for water harvesting and storage, and an increasing demand for water from the growing population. In order to tackle her water issues, Singapore has relied upon innovative solutions through research and technology, optimisation and education. The focus on water sustainability is evident in Singapore’s idea of the “Four National Taps” which comprises of local catchment water, imported water, desalinated water and NEWater, which is drinking water converted from used water. In addition, Singapore emphasises on water conservation and management of demand for water through
      implementation of water efficient devices and encouraging good water saving habits. In line with Singapore’s national agenda, this research project aims to explore some ways to optimise usage of potable water to alleviate strain on this national resource.
      The study will focus on the optimisation of water usage in a school (River Valley High School) with the objectives to (1) assess the current water usage through water audit
      in order to identify water usage patterns, (2) ascertain areas which require improvements, and (3) formulate responses to tackle these areas of improvement through a. educating the student population and b. possible enhancement of the toilet facilities. Lastly, to (4) examine the possibility of using rainwater harvesting to complement the usage of non-potable water in the school premises.
      With over 360 of them, schools form a significant influence promoting sustainable water usage in Singapore. Having the intention to impact future water utilisation in the city state positively, we hope that the outcome of our project may be transferrable to the other educational institutions, or encourage other students to come out with similar strategies for saving water and optimisation of water usage.
      The issue of water sustainability and water security is a national concern. To tackle this, there needs to be an inclusive concern and action by all to complement innovative research and large-scale planning. This school-based study aims to do just that.

      River Valley High Team 210-03-2016
    • "100 YEAR DROUGHT"

      An exploration of local socio-ecological changes and agency development as an result of a national drought.
      South Africa is experiencing the worst drought since records started in 1904. The drought is magnifying existing issues within the South African landscape. The 60% of South African citizens living below the "breadline" will struggle to afford food when prices increase as a result of a poor harvest during the drought. Poor municipal
      management allows valuable water to be wasted through leaking infrastructure, or polluted by badly managed sewage, further developing tensions which already exist between the public and
      government departments over limited resources. Differences in attitudes toward natural spaces and resources create frustration and friction among the "everyday" South Africans who use and might lose the benefits they bring.
      What are the socio-ecological changes in the life of a local citizen and what can they do about it?
      The effect of a national drought on the life of the average South African citizen.
      In order to gain insight into these questions we will perform: A case study of a local dam and the people who visit it.

      SAC/DSG10-03-2016
    • The impact of human activity on the rivers water quality of our town, Vervins (Picardie, France).

      First of all, it is relevant to say that human activity can have a quite
      important impact on the rivers water quality, even more particularly as far
      as the low-yielding rivers water is concerned. In order to estimate this
      effect, we will not only focus on the biodiversity of macro-invertebrates
      but also on the diversity of some micro-organisms called diatoms. These
      observations will be presented along with various physicochemical
      measurements (i.e. temperature, PH readings, dissolved dioxygen, current speed, turbidity, conductivity and so on...). These scientific facts as well as the water sampling will be carried out on both upstream and downstream rivers in our town. A third river which is known for the exceptional quality of its water will also be studied as a
      basis for comparison. We can assume that the biodiversity in the downstream part of the town will be lower. Where appropriate and on the basis of these studies, the identification of the species which disappear – or, on the contrary, whose population abnormally grows – together with physicochemical measurements should enable us to determine the potential source of pollution. This process ultimately aims at making our citizens aware of the impact of their activities and helping them understand the importance of preserving a significant biodiversity.

      Saint Joseph 110-03-2016
    • How much water do we eat? Virtual water consumption of students in Germany

      Our Going Green Team of the “Gymnasium der Stadt Alsdorf” (Grammar School) quantifies the virtual water consumption of students when only eating a typical German breakfast.
      We present the first study of the water consumption of students at our school. Before calculations can be done, a “typical German breakfast”needs to be identified. Our Going Green Team started
      the survey on what a typical German breakfast contains by creating a questionnaire for all students of our school. The evaluations show that depending on age and gender food preference and amount varies a lot. The alarming amount of virtual water consumption will be analysed and dia-
      grammed. The main purpose of this project is to create awareness and understand social responisibility. The
      impact our consumption can have on the environment is revealed in a few examples and can be taken for further studies or for education in school.

      Gymnasium Alsdorf 215-04-2016
    • Handling surface water

      There is a growing environmental problem in Denmark. The sewer systems in most areas have to take in both the waste water and the surface water from the heavy rainfalls that we are experiencing. The sewer system floods when there is too much rain in a short period of time, like we have experienced several times over the past few years. We want to address this issue by finding out what is already being done locally and map out what the individual can do to manage the surface and maybe also the grey waste water from their own property. We shall test the surface water to tell whether it is harmfull to let it all into the streams
      without being cleaned first - or whether there are areas that pollutes the surface water so much that it is better to let it into the sewer systems where it will eventually be cleaned
      before being let out into nature again.

      Eisbjerghus International School15-04-2016
    • Challenges and Chances of Privatization of Water Based on the Local Experiences in Stuttgart / Germany

      In Germany we consider universal access to fresh water of a high quality a common right and trust our governmental entities to control and supervise quality and distribution. Accordingly
      considerations of positive and negative aspects of the privatization of water were only of a theoretical matter and usually met with lesser interest. This changed radically when our city Stuttgart, the capital of the Southwestern state of Baden – Württemberg in Germany, leased its water supply system as well as distribution rights to the privately owned company EnBW in 2002. Based on the lessons learned in Stuttgart we want to analyse our own local experience with privatization of water, but also plan to widen the perspective of our project to a more global context
      of natural resources, political and economic circumstances as well as social issues to find out what role privatization could play for water supply in the future.

      Dillmann Social Science Team15-04-2016
    • Quality Check of Tap Water in Stuttgart / Germany and Implications for the Water Infrastructure System in the outhwestern state of Baden

      In Germany it is common to use tap water for drinking and cooking purposes. People put trust in its quality thanks to the high-level treatment facilities in our country. But is the water really clean or is it affected by the water pipeline system?
      In this project the students will analyze the quality of the water supplied in Stuttgart in Southwest Germany and compare it to the original water from its source at the Bodensee in South Germany. We want to follow the steps taken to treat lake water with its source in the Alps to drinking water quality level and how treatment plants in Germany, especially in Baden-Württemberg, operate. Consequently we look into what criteria are applied to control drinking water quality and if the quality is impacted on a chemical level by the transport within the pipeline system.

      15-04-2016
    • How can we check and safeguard the quality of waters of river Po?

      Considering the importance of the river Po for our city, it seemed interesting to us to go and investigate, with our research team (Water keepers), in which ways the relevant authorities take charge of the control and monitoring of the water quality. We will be going with biologists of ARPA (Agenzia Regionale per la Protezione Ambientale/Regional Agency of Environmental Protection) to collect the Po water and samples of its organisms, in three different stations and in different seasons, in and near Turin to recognise and study macrobenthos, macrophytes and diatoms, indicator species of the water quality.
      The purpose is also to understand how the samples have to be analysed and in which way the collected data have to be
      integrated and processed with specific
      software to obtain a result in terms of
      water quality evaluation, according to the European Water Framework Directive
      (WFD) dated from the end of 2000.

      Water keepers15-04-2016
    • Water Recreation of Cikapundung River in Bandung City

      Cikapundung River is one of the water supply sources for Bandung City, it flows from the north to the south of the city. Over the years the environment of the river had been decreasing in the context of the water quality and the urban problem. Recently at the beginning of 2016, the major of Bandung City launched the new face of the river, as well as the river bank. A water recreation has been developed in the form a park, namely Cikapundung Park. This project is aiming at finding out possible active participation of surrounding community and government facilitation required in assisting the sustainability of Cikapundung Park. We develop survey protocols to collect information and opinions not only from people who lived around the river, but also several communities from various age in Bandung City, as well as from authorities of the city, academics, and researchers. At the end of the project, recommendation will be sent to the major of Bandung City as the initiator of the park.

      Indonesian Team15-04-2016